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English HW help?

spikeyjacko Avatar
8y, 1m agoPosted 8 years, 1 month ago
Has anybody studied Audens poem '1st september 1939'
I need a fact about verse seven :p
Or what it means or what it links to lol..
thanks :)
Jack
spikeyjacko Avatar
8y, 1m agoPosted 8 years, 1 month ago
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#1
anyone?
#2
post it on here
#3
From the conservative dark
Into the ethical life
The dense commuters come,
Repeating their morning vow;
"I will be true to the wife,
I'll concentrate more on my work,"
And helpless governors wake
To resume their compulsory game:
Who can release them now,
Who can reach the deaf,
Who can speak for the dumb?
#4
in context:

I sit in one of the dives
On Fifty-second Street
Uncertain and afraid
As the clever hopes expire
Of a low dishonest decade:
Waves of anger and fear
Circulate over the bright
And darkened lands of the earth,
Obsessing our private lives;
The unmentionable odour of death
Offends the September night.

Accurate scholarship can
Unearth the whole offence
From Luther until now
That has driven a culture mad,
Find what occurred at Linz,
What huge imago made
A psychopathic god:
I and the public know
What all schoolchildren learn,
Those to whom evil is done
Do evil in return.

Exiled Thucydides knew
All that a speech can say
About Democracy,
And what dictators do,
The elderly rubbish they talk
To an apathetic grave;
Analysed all in his book,
The enlightenment driven away,
The habit-forming pain,
Mismanagement and grief:
We must suffer them all again.

Into this neutral air
Where blind skyscrapers use
Their full height to proclaim
The strength of Collective Man,
Each language pours its vain
Competitive excuse:
But who can live for long
In an euphoric dream;
Out of the mirror they stare,
Imperialism's face
And the international wrong.

Faces along the bar
Cling to their average day:
The lights must never go out,
The music must always play,
All the conventions conspire
To make this fort assume
The furniture of home;
Lest we should see where we are,
Lost in a haunted wood,
Children afraid of the night
Who have never been happy or good.

The windiest militant trash
Important Persons shout
Is not so crude as our wish:
What mad Nijinsky wrote
About Diaghilev
Is true of the normal heart;
For the error bred in the bone
Of each woman and each man
Craves what it cannot have,
Not universal love
But to be loved alone.

From the conservative dark
Into the ethical life
The dense commuters come,
Repeating their morning vow;
"I will be true to the wife,
I'll concentrate more on my work,"
And helpless governors wake
To resume their compulsory game:
Who can release them now,
Who can reach the deaf,
Who can speak for the dumb?

All I have is a voice
To undo the folded lie,
The romantic lie in the brain
Of the sensual man-in-the-street
And the lie of Authority
Whose buildings grope the sky:
There is no such thing as the State
And no one exists alone;
Hunger allows no choice
To the citizen or the police;
We must love one another or die.

Defenceless under the night
Our world in stupor lies;
Yet, dotted everywhere,
Ironic points of light
Flash out wherever the Just
Exchange their messages:
May I, composed like them
Of Eros and of dust,
Beleaguered by the same
Negation and despair,
Show an affirming flame.
#5
I dont have a clue what to put for it lol!
#6
the conservative dark, uses a (what u call it when something is opposite) to describe consevatism ina negative manner and howone is not ethical but has to enter this life from what they presume is them being conservative. he explains what he eans by 'dark' cos he describes those we percieve as 'conservative' as dense and helpless.

in the dark they are helpless and it not possible to avail them from their lives as they have become so enthralled in living this facade that they are like the deaf and dumb and one cannot approacjh them. what they perceive as conservative and ethical, is not.

sorry i know its cruddy but im really rushed and gotta help my son with his reading! i might have a proper read tonight again if i get te chance, good luck.
#7
Google, and hence Wikipedia, says:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_1,_1939

Description
The poem deliberately echoes the stanza form of W. B. Yeats's "Easter, 1916", another poem about an important historical event, and, like Yeats' poem, Auden's moves from a description of historical failures and frustrations to a possible transformation in the present or future.

Until the two final stanzas, the poem briefly describes the social and personal pathology that has brought about the outbreak of war: first the historical development of Germany "from Luther until now", next the internal conflicts in every individual person that correspond to the external conflicts of the war. Much of the language and content of the poem echoes that of C. G. Jung in his book Psychology and Religion (1938).

The final two stanzas shift radically in tone and content, turning to the truth that the poet can tell, "We must love one another or die," and to the presence in the world of "the Just" who exchange messages of hope. The poem ends with the hope that the poet, like "the Just", can "show an affirming flame" in the midst of the disaster.

[edit] History of the text
Auden wrote the poem in the first days of World War II, while visiting the father of his lover Chester Kallman in New Jersey (information provided by Kallman to friends). In a fanciful biography written much later, Dorothy Farnan -- who met Auden three years after the poem was written -- wrote that the poem was written in the Dizzy Club, a jazz bar on 52nd Street in New York, but this story is entirely imaginary.

Even before printing the poem for the first time, Auden deleted two stanzas from the latter section, one of them proclaiming his faith in an inevitable "education of man" away from war and division. The two stanzas are printed in Edward Mendelson's Early Auden (1981).

Soon after writing the poem, Auden began to turn away from it, apparently because he found it self-flattering to himself and to his readers. When he reprinted the poem in The Collected Poetry of W. H. Auden (1945) he omitted the famous stanza that ends "We must love one another or die." In 1957, he wrote to the critic Laurence Lerner, "Between you and me, I loathe that poem" (quoted in Edward Mendelson, Later Auden, p. 478). He resolved to omit it from his further collections (it did not appear in his 1966 Collected Shorter Poems 1927-1957).

In the mid-1950s Auden began to refuse permission to editors who asked to reprint the poem in anthologies. In 1955 he allowed Oscar Williams to include it complete in The New Pocket Anthology of American Verse with the most famous line altered to read "We must love one another and die." Later he allowed the poem to be reprinted only once, in a Penguin Books anthology Poetry of the Thirties (1964), with a note saying about this and four other early poems, "Mr. W. H. Auden considers these five poems to be trash which he is ashamed to have written."

[edit] Reception
Despite Auden's disapproval, the poem became famous and widely popular. E. M. Forster wrote "Because he once wrote 'We must love one another or die' he can command me to follow him" (Two Cheers for Democracy, 1951).

A close echo of the line "We must love one another or die", spoken by Barry Goldwater in a recording of one of his speeches, was used in the famous Johnson campaign commercial "Daisy" during the 1964 campaign. In the ad, the image of a young girl picks petals from a daisy, then is replaced by the image of a nuclear detonation, which serves as an apocalyptic backdrop to the audio of Goldwater's speech. Goldwater's version of the line, inserted into a speech by an unidentified speechwriter, was "We must love each other, or we must die."

In 2001, immediately after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the poem was read (with many lines omitted) on National Public Radio and was widely circulated and discussed for its relevance to recent events.

Also: http://www.tickey.co.za/poetry/Article%20on%20Auden%20September%201%201939.pdf
#8
oh thats the bakground! ok that makes more sense..
#9
thanks!
ill keep trying :p
#10
So - did you get your answer sorted from the above?

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