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Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw - Why Does E=mc2? (And Why Should We Care?) Kindle Edition - 99p @ Amazon
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Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw - Why Does E=mc2? (And Why Should We Care?) Kindle Edition - 99p @ Amazon

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Posted 17th Jun
The international bestseller: an introduction to the theory of relativity by the eminent physicists Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw

What does E=mc2 actually mean? Dr. Brian Cox and Professor Jeff Forshaw go on a journey to the frontier of twenty-first century science to unpack Einstein's famous equation. Explaining and simplifying notions of energy, mass, and light-while exploding commonly held misconceptions-they demonstrate how the structure of nature itself is contained within this equation. Along the way, we visit the site of one of the largest scientific experiments ever conducted: the now-famous Large Hadron Collider, a gigantic particle accelerator capable of re-creating conditions that existed fractions of a second after the Big Bang.A collaboration between one of the youngest professors in the United Kingdom and a distinguished popular physicist, Why Does E=mc2? is one of the most exciting and accessible explanations of the theory of relativity.

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20 Comments
HyperLuminal17/06/2020 10:44

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Your in for a shock when you turn your toes up then. Eternal life is atom recycling...LLAP.
Damian6617/06/2020 10:49

Your in for a shock when you turn your toes up then. Eternal life is atom …Your in for a shock when you turn your toes up then. Eternal life is atom recycling...LLAP.


How is life eternal? Atoms aren't alive and neither do they last forever. The universe expands at exponentially faster rates and eventually all atoms will be unable to stay stable and lose its elementary parts. And once all the black holes evaporate time stops and nothing will ever change again.
HyperLuminal17/06/2020 11:45

How is life eternal? Atoms aren't alive and neither do they last forever. …How is life eternal? Atoms aren't alive and neither do they last forever. The universe expands at exponentially faster rates and eventually all atoms will be unable to stay stable and lose its elementary parts. And once all the black holes evaporate time stops and nothing will ever change again.


Will face masks and virus killing hand gel still be required?
IgnatiusJ17/06/2020 11:50

Will face masks and virus killing hand gel still be required?


No. By then we'll all be chipped and behaving like good, little consumers, grassing each other up like members of the Stasi in the new world order.
HyperLuminal17/06/2020 11:45

How is life eternal? Atoms aren't alive and neither do they last forever. …How is life eternal? Atoms aren't alive and neither do they last forever. The universe expands at exponentially faster rates and eventually all atoms will be unable to stay stable and lose its elementary parts. And once all the black holes evaporate time stops and nothing will ever change again.


Compared to the non existent damnation you where eluding I fancy the chances of my atoms having a much longer lifespan, given that an atom has a finite number of protons and neutrons, it will generally emit particles until it gets to a point where its half-life is so long, it is effectively stable. For example, Bismuth-209 is believed to have the longest decay rate. It undergoes something known as “alpha decay,” and it’s half-life is over a billion times longer than the current estimated age of the universe.
So for all intents and purposes, Bismuth-209 is basically eternal.
That said, true eternal life depends on whether or not protons can decay. Some scientists have put forth hypotheses related to this, and it is referred to as “proton decay” (a hypothetical form of radioactive decay). According to one idea, the Georgi–Glashow model, protons transition into a positron and a neutral pion, which then decays into 2 gamma ray photons. Estimates put the half-life for protons at 1.29×1034 years, that’ll do for me.
A very good, informative post. Only one issue with it is the timescale. Even if Bismuth-209 has the longest decay rate at over a billion times longer than the current age of the universe, that amount of time doesn't even scratch the surface of the potential age of the universe once the last of the black holes loses all its mass to evaporation via the Hawkins Effect; I dont know how represent the number as it's so large but if you imagine the number 10 is representative of a trillion years, the age of the universe at the end is about 10 to the power of 13.

But long before that any matter that still existed will have either been consumed by black holes, decayed or become so diffuse that elementary particles can't interact. Also given that space is expanding at an exponential rate it's possible that it will reach superluminal velocity rendering everything forever beyond the horizon and impossible to form/clump all the way down to the planck length and mass, not to mention that the acceleration could possibly rip spacetime apart as its stretched beyond its ability to resist.

Having said all this proton/neutron decay is still only an hypothesis. Well, of course most of this is but the maths in particular proton decay more so, if that makes sense.
Edited by: "HyperLuminal" 17th Jun
Damian66 and HyperLuminal, Is the idea that eventually the universe will go into reverse and converge to a tiny dot (leading to another Big Bang) no longer considered to be a reasonable possibility?
We're just fleshy machines
IgnatiusJ17/06/2020 18:25

Damian66 and HyperLuminal, Is the idea that eventually the universe will …Damian66 and HyperLuminal, Is the idea that eventually the universe will go into reverse and converge to a tiny dot (leading to another Big Bang) no longer considered to be a reasonable possibility?


There are many hypothesis including the one you outline & here is some interesting & similar reading on said; google.co.uk/amp…tml
Edited by: "Damian66" 17th Jun
Thanks Zioman.


Who knows?
Damian6617/06/2020 20:49

There are many hypothesis including the one you outline & here is some …There are many hypothesis including the one you outline & here is some interesting & similar reading on said; google.co.uk/amp/s/www.livescience.com/amp/64470-universe-has-mirror-image-universe.html


Thank you
IgnatiusJ17/06/2020 18:25

Damian66 and HyperLuminal, Is the idea that eventually the universe will …Damian66 and HyperLuminal, Is the idea that eventually the universe will go into reverse and converge to a tiny dot (leading to another Big Bang) no longer considered to be a reasonable possibility?


A ' big crunch ' was an hypothesis but there's no known mechanism in physics that could cause the universe to slow, stop and reverse the exponentially accelerating, expansive pressure put on the fabric of spacetime by dark energy which is currently stretching it out increasing its size.

Because of this current thinking is that the universe won't be going out with a bang, like the big crunch would produce, but it will die a cold, lonely empty place where absolutely nothing exists, nothing changes, and time has no meaning.


The universe isnt growing, think of it as the surface area of a balloon that gets bigger as it's being inflated; it's the same surface area being stretched.


That's why life is so amazing. The actual fraction of time that life is able to exist in this universe compared to how long the universe will exist is truly mind-blowing:

life as we know it is only possible for one-thousandth of a billion billion billionth, billion billion billionth, billion billion billionth, of a per cent of that time. And you're alive. Think of how incredible precious and fortuitous that is. If we all could truly appreciate that the world would undoubtedly be a better place.


There are many other hypotheses dealing with the end of our universe birthing a new one, as you suggested in your question, such as the eternal inflation model which suggest the creation of mulitverses from an expanding universe. Also in String Theory the idea is that our universe is one membrane amongst many; think of it like we live on the surface of one slice of bread within a loaf of bread with many, many slices next to each other. The idea is that these membranes fluctuate and over time (or meta-time whatever that is because its outside of the time we experience within this universe) they collide/touch somewhere along their surface area and that contact produces the singularity that births a universe. This idea can be tested to be true as if it did happen the CMB (cosmic background radiation. When the universe was only a few hundred thousand years old it became transparent enough to allow light to travel across it. We have captured those photons and developed a picture of what the universe looked like just after it came to exist) will show 'patches' that could be the direct result of a collision between membranes.
Edited by: "HyperLuminal" 18th Jun
IgnatiusJ18/06/2020 08:01

Thank you


Welcome, to postulate any form of cohesive hypothesis you'll need to understand the role of entropy.
HyperLuminal18/06/2020 08:36

A ' big crunch ' was an hypothesis but there's no known mechanism in …A ' big crunch ' was an hypothesis but there's no known mechanism in physics that could cause the universe to slow, stop and reverse the exponentially accelerating, expansive pressure put on the fabric of spacetime by dark energy which is currently stretching it out increasing its size. Because of this current thinking is that the universe won't be going out with a bang, like the big crunch would produce, but it will die a cold, lonely empty place where absolutely nothing exists, nothing changes, and time has no meaning. The universe isnt growing, think of it as the surface area of a balloon that gets bigger as it's being inflated; it's the same surface area being stretched.That's why life is so amazing. The actual fraction of time that life is able to exist in this universe compared to how long the universe will exist is truly mind-blowing: life as we know it is only possible for one-thousandth of a billion billion billionth, billion billion billionth, billion billion billionth, of a per cent of that time. And you're alive. Think of how incredible precious and fortuitous that is. If we all could truly appreciate that the world would undoubtedly be a better place. There are many other hypotheses dealing with the end of our universe birthing a new one, as you suggested in your question, such as the eternal inflation model which suggest the creation of mulitverses from an expanding universe. Also in String Theory the idea is that our universe is one membrane amongst many; think of it like we live on the surface of one slice of bread within a loaf of bread with many, many slices next to each other. The idea is that these membranes fluctuate and over time (or meta-time whatever that is because its outside of the time we experience within this universe) they collide/touch somewhere along their surface area and that contact produces the singularity that births a universe. This idea can be tested to be true as if it did happen the CMB (cosmic background radiation. When the universe was only a few hundred thousand years old it became transparent enough to allow light to travel across it. We have captured those photons and developed a picture of what the universe looked like just after it came to exist) will show 'patches' that could be the direct result of a collision between membranes.


Thank you.
Forget all that bunkum, you'll find all the answers in the Bible
If universe is a balloon expanding but same area..... What is beyond the balloon? A mystery land?
HyperLuminal18/06/2020 08:36

Because of this current thinking is that the universe won't be going out …Because of this current thinking is that the universe won't be going out with a bang, like the big crunch would produce, but it will die a cold, lonely empty place where absolutely nothing exists, nothing changes, and time has no meaning.


So rather like lockdown without pubs then.
sean2318/06/2020 13:29

If universe is a balloon expanding but same area..... What is beyond the …If universe is a balloon expanding but same area..... What is beyond the balloon? A mystery land?


It's a good question. There are many hypotheses, as I've mentioned before, about a multiverse, many 'balloon skins'. Off the top of my head I can think of 5 multiverse possibilities, two I've mentioned already in a previous post. Other ones are the 'many worlds' where universes branch off into new timelines (therefore universes) every time a 'decision' is made all the way down to sub-atomic levels. Or universes are created at the singularity of a black hole. And then theres the one that really blows my mind and is actually the most plausible of them all; that we are in a simulation.

Consider this. An advanced species creates a simulated universe on a computer and designed it with all the physical laws it needs to pass off as one. The programme is sophisticated enough for lifeforms to be sentient, self aware and intelligent.

In time (remember time is relative and so you expect time in a simulation to be at a different rate than the real time in the 'real' universe) the species within that simulated universe becomes advanced enough to be able to create a simulated universe which obeys the laws of physics as they understand it leading to sentient life within it (or they just programmed sentient life too, either way, makes no difference) And so on it goes, each simulation giving rise to another, the total of sims growing exponentially. Huge numbers of sim universes vastly outnumbering the one real universe.

So if you take this premise to its extreme the chances of us living in a simulated universe created by some sweaty alien kid in his basement is actually A LOT likelier than this all being 'real' and occurring naturally. There would be so many simulated universes in existence that the odds of us not being in one of them is much lower than the odds of being in a real one.
That sweaty alien could be God! (though we were probably created by a previous sim universe so it's not our God directly, more like our great, great, great....(near infinite amount of 'great' later)...great great God!
Edited by: "HyperLuminal" 18th Jun
IgnatiusJ18/06/2020 11:03

Thank you.


A pleasure. I love this stuff. It's awe inspiring. It's one of those things that you can legitimately describe as 'awesome' and not worry about sounding like an American who's just heard his burger is ready. It really is awesome.
stickyricky18/06/2020 12:35

Forget all that bunkum, you'll find all the answers in the Bible


And they're free! I wish hotels had pornography in the draw next to the bed instead of a bible
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